We publish the text and video of the lecture, neuroscientist and venture capital expert, candidate of chemical Sciences, fellow of the Institute of bio-organic chemistry Russian Academy of Sciences Dmitry Kuzmin, read November 10, 2011 at the club ZaVtra (Pies on Sretenka) in the framework of the project “Public lectures Watered.
The text of the lecture
My wife to me before the lecture said that when I say the word “law” and it will not be the law of Boyle-Mariotte), in this audience will listen to three, maybe four. But I’m still going to say that word. We now have almost adopted the law on the health of the nation, you might say. On the one hand, well. On the other hand, if you look at this law, it becomes clear that he accepted written and, most importantly, based on today’s condition, what medicine, what today people, today the population, etc. without some thought about the future at all. You can spend a lot of time on why this is so, but I firmly believe in one – we have lost the ability to look ahead and think strategically, to think about how it all will develop somewhere ahead. Although health and how it will develop, actually depends very much, and not only how we live, each of us, but the mass of economic, as we have shown the American crisis, and social, right down to nationalism, problems. So I really hope that when you leave this place, maybe you have some new thoughts about how to develop the health, and maybe someone someday something will impact in this area. To torture you came, now begin to entertain.
Please raise your hands all who have a mobile phone has Internet access. I congratulate you, you are all cyborgs. Yeah, me too. What I mean. We always communicate on the network, anyone who has Internet in phone all the time in Facebook there is something scribbles, Twitter, God forbid. I recently was walking down the street toward the house, and clicking on the buttons in your iPhone’e, would chat with his buddy, who also was walking down the street to the house in new York. I wrote to him: “Dude, you and I have telepathy at all, you know that, right?” Just the interface is very inconvenient. I instead send him straight to new York, forced to press keys on the display. And it is still good that I’m now on the display press the buttons. Ten years ago I would have pressed the keyboard at home, twenty – I was on the phone, one hundred – I’d sailed on the steamer.
Interfaces inexorably develop even more. Looks like the interface now, we all know. In five years, I think the interface will look something like this: a piece of glass that you can bring to the house of another person, the camera, anything – and learn some context, something of a worldwide network which will tell you what building this is, what’s the name of Boris Dolgin, how much apartment on this floor, or when I get back the person who left the office. We will reflect a little bit on the question: what happens when the same will suggest some of you, and see what you sick? Is it good or bad. This is not a very simple question, actually. We see that the interfaces are not very effective. Even this is not very effective. If I want to transfer some of you thought or quickly send a message, I still need something to get and something to click. Question: where to go? The answer is quite obvious: then you can only move directly into the brain. Right brain is kind of like this.
For example, the one on the right. Here she is right in the brains. Is there such a thing? Already have. Here it is, for example, in the monkey wearing. Called motgomery interface, or brain computer interface English. What is it? This is a device that is able to convert brain signals into signals that go to the computer and preferably Vice versa. On the contrary almost doesn’t work yet, and from the brain to the computer has been running perfectly. The General sense is that we want to control a computer by thinking . simple management idea. Sounds extremely fantastic. Like I you about science fiction began to tell. Actually, no. This is a commercial market that is growing. Ways to build human motomarina interfaces, by and large, two: invasive and non-invasive. Non-invasive – that we have something to set my head and trying to understand what she was thinking. Invasive – that we have something inserted inside the head, connected to nerves and trying to figure out what it goes on. Both areas are developing quite successfully, and about both I’m a little bit will tell.
Here you see invasive interface. It is directly inserted in the monkey. A monkey can with his help to control this robotic arm, and she manages her as well as his paw, ie, with the help of that hand she is able to eat a banana, quite successfully. Moreover, this monkey (she suffered at some zoo fight or something else) atrophied left arm, i.e. her mother’s left hand is not working, but not for nervous reasons, and traumatic. Accordingly, it is controlled by the brain prosthesis, the prosthesis that works surprisingly effectively. How does this interface? He normal wait directly to a monkey’s brain, is built instead of a chip hippocampus, which is connected like an electric nerves to the nerves present and more or less successfully. In the part I now I will not go, who cares, I’ll tell you later. Moreover, such interfaces are on the people. For people who are completely paralyzed and unable to control their movements for some reason, e.g. due to spinal injury in the cervical spine (this is quite frequent and, unfortunately, a very sad thing), developed this interface. Is called brain gate. To install it requires a full lobotomy, that is removing the cap of the skull. The skull cap is opened, is placed on top of this wonderful bar. It’s actually a model, in reality there is a very complicated pin chip with a bunch of chips with lots of processors that motor output information that can control artificial limbs, or to stimulate the movement of these in the case of nerve degeneration. Moreover, this thing is now undergoing clinical trials, and I think in five years the market will be, if all goes well. Ie, this is already a reality. Moreover, in the way of implantation, there is a much b on long success, but this success is not from man to machine and machine to man, and probably the only time these successes. You see it here, top right – it’s artificial eye. It’s who is versed in photography or physics, he will understand, – photomultiplier tube, or brain, as is now fashionable to say, which is put on a certain amount of electronics implanted in the eye and straight wire connected to the optic nerve. He sees pretty bad because not as well movable as the human eye. He sees no color, only sees the light intensity, and this is due to purely physiological causes, by the way, and very expensive (about 200 thousand dollars), but otherwise like normal implantable eye. If a person has lost, say, the fundus of the eye, he has a complete retinal degeneration or traumatic injury of the eye, or nerve damaged, then it is possible to restore vision in this way. And it is clear that any technology that can be optimized, will fall in price, I think it is not necessary to explain. Therefore, it is also a reality that has come and will come on.
What else is there to implant the way? For a very long time – patients with chronic diseases, unfortunately, many are aware of this – there are implantable ports for injection. What is it? That’s the stuff that is embedded in a blood vessel, successfully operates there, maybe something to measure in parallel, for example, blood pressure, and from time to time, there just instead of every once in the vein, the nurse inserts a small needle, and something enters there. And that stuff is just as dirt is quite.
Accordingly, detracting slightly from the implants, to which we shall return later, I’ll tell you a little about what a non-invasive way. It’s a little more mystery now. The meaning is that you take electroencephalograph, that is a recorder of the biofield of the brain, the electrical signal that the brain is projecting outward, applying electrodes to the head of a design. Unfortunately, we don’t know how to produce such materials, which would provide a fairly good removal of the signal at room temperature with dry sensors and without damaging the hair. So you have something to shave, something to wet, tight hold – and normally we write an electroencephalogram. In principle, almost all did. Inaccurate encephalogram done so already probably all in the clinic. In order to manage something quite telepathic way, you need a very accurate system that accurately distinguishes between different types of brain waves.
Why is it necessary? Because there is a big theoretical problem – I’m not even going to ask who might have something to say about it, – what is the idea?