The history of mankind is full of sorrow and suffering. Hundreds of thousands of years ago our ancestors fought alone with nature, almost always losing. The person does not have powerful claws, no tough skin. In the battle with the elements, ruthless and cruel, he has little chance. But the gift of reason gave us a different weapon that is not given to man to disappear in the evolutionary battles, like the others: we’re transforming our everyday living environment. From the moment when man made the first gun that has never existed in the Universe, he opened the way to modern civilization.
Now, eons later, we are so used to the built environment, you yourselves have created that are not even aware of its existence. Man lives thanks to the work of the various services and infrastructures. Perhaps, almost any resident of the metropolis feels ancient chill inside, when the lights in his house suddenly pales, and he again left alone with Erebos.
With the development of society, new habits and needs, not perceived, until one day they disappear. Today’s children rarely feel the distinction between a physical mobile device and its virtual environment. Their children will not imagine my life without any other technologies that we don’t have the slightest idea.
But despite the progress, the person remains «public animal». A living creature that needs a simplest. In the shelter, bread and clothing. Of course, our standard of living is constantly increasing: now almost everyone can afford something that couldn’t afford the French monarch a few centuries ago. Undoubtedly, it would continue, but the basic problems of our existence will accompany the person until it retains its human shell.
The safety of this finest, biologically, lace shell depends on a million factors. Once mankind knew only a little part of them — and the Black Death had taken its toll. The echoes of this event is still preserved in our language: the word «quarantine» come to us from the ancient Venice, suffering from the plague. In an attempt to stop the scourge of ships from distant countries were instructed to remain outside the port for 40 days. «Quaranta giorni» — that was the name of this term in the Venetian dialect stroiteljnogo language.
Mankind defeated the plague and smallpox, our wives and daughters do not die from puerperal fever, and we secretly hope that we’re lucky to live to a hundred years. However, people are still mortal, and whenever a man is pierced with pain, the old, primal fear reminds him of the finiteness of his existence. Our civilization is doomed to eternal struggle with what is trying to ruin her. We decided to show you just how huge the scale of the changes awaiting us in the twenty-first century health care — and what problems will still be with us.
I NEVER ASKED FOR THIS
In the past, technology digest, we wrote about 3D printing, which allowed to simplify and cheapen the manufacture of prostheses. However, it was fairly simple devices. But recently the FDA (Management on sanitary inspection behind quality of foodstuff and medicines of the USA) has approved the use of a completely new device — of riboprotein, allowing to make precise movements. Electrodes connected to the muscles, catch nerve impulses, and the prosthesis handles and accounts for these data. Research has shown that in 90% of cases the patients were able to perform actions that previously were not able. Now they can take a berry and not to crush her, to play rock-scissors-paper, and even in Halo!
The staff of the Ohio state University in late April, had surgery, which das paralyzed people the opportunity to come back to life. To restore the broken relationship between the muscles of the hand and the brain, scientists implanted in the head of 23-year-old boy with a special transmitter. The transmitter communicates with the computer, decoding the thoughts of the patient. The computer, in turn, connects with a group of electrodes positioned on the arm and forcing the muscles to work again. Although it is too early to speak about the results of the experiment, there is no doubt that disabled people will have the opportunity to lead a full life.
However, being developed not only for creating mechanical additions. Neuroscientists at the University of New South Wales (Australia) was placed artificial DNA in the ears in advance deafened Guinea pigs. After some time the auditory nerves recovered. Tissue learned to make from scrap materials: the muscles from fishing line outperforms natural analogue. Artificial muscles created before this, but it is so cheap they have never been. And so powerful: one kilogram of these muscles can develop power up to 5 kW — this is comparable to a jet engine.
When you attempt (successful) to make a mouse muscles were stronger, that they not only 10 times more powerful than normal, but also actively resist one of the most dangerous neurotoxins — to Cobra venom. Indeed, not in vain in Novosibirsk Akademgorodok put up a monument to lab mice: we owe much to these creatures. In the Scottish University of Edinburgh with the help of gene therapy in elderly mice regained almost atrophied with age the thymus. This body is responsible for the Genesis of T-cells that are part of the immune system. For the regeneration of a single gene was responsible.
Do not be upset because these wonderful technologies have not yet reached the people. It’s gonna happen. For example, the technique of muscle regeneration using extracellular matrix. derived from pig bladder that was successfully tested on rodents, which led to trials involving people. Patients removed the scar tissue and put back the flap of the intercellular matrix. He was then attached to healthy tissue, as it provoked the collapse of the work of stem cells. The result — the formation of new muscle tissue. This has significantly improved the ability of patients. One of them was able to jump. Specifically, Dr. house with this technology wouldn’t need the vicodin.
But that’s not all: the Italian scientists are seriously considering the possibility of transplantation of the head — along with the spinal cord.
Such could not fail to respond big-time sports: in 2016, the year in Zurich will host the first Caroliniana. It will be open to athletes using various robotic prostheses. The medal will be awarded to both the competitor and the constructor.
Following the advice of Hippocrates, the medicine goes behind the army: the army is particularly interested in the development of technologies to save the life of a soldier, a very expensive cost to taxpayers. A special role is played by the famous Agency DARPA, the development of which we once wrote. The development of these smart prosthesis sponsored it. In April 2014 DARPA opened the Department of biotechnology. workers which will focus on the mitigation of damages from injuries and wounds (of course, obtained on the battlefield). However, the Agency already has exciting developments, such as nanobots, cures diseases, abnormalities, and infectious diseases. Work even narnarayan. Against this background, contact lenses, giving the opportunity to see in the dark. starting to seem somewhat boring…
And, despite the fact that many of these projects will be the projects for many years, fruit they bring right now.
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THE MORPHINE ENTERED
This year has been the year of wearable devices: smart watches of various shapes and sizes filled the Windows. Many of them are only the second display for the smartphone, but more often they appear functions for the calculation of physical loads. Although limited capacity (gross spent counting calories, pedometer monitoring sleep), there is no doubt that in the future they can help to prevent diseases.
Representatives and Google. and Apple had earlier met with representatives of the FDA. On the occasion of the first meeting is not enough information (perhaps we are talking about some on Google Glass wearable biosensors). About developments of Cupertino became known curious details. partially confirmed 2 June at the WWDC 2014 presentation.
In IOS 8, the next version of mobile operating system Apple will be preinstalled with the Healthkit app that gathers information from devices available in the market. Healthkit will support the collection of information from various trackers: data about blood pressure, wasted calories, sleep quality, and probably the level of glucose in the blood.
Given previous leaks, we can assume that these sensors will be integrated in the new wearable device from Apple. The influence of Apple on the mobile market it is difficult to overestimate. However, this time Samsung was ahead of Apple. Such competition is not surprising: 26 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, and the annual costs associated with it, be 245 billion dollars a year (more than half of the budget of the Russian Federation in 2014 year).
An important question remains how the standardization and security of the data. Given that Larry page, one of the founders of Google, in one of his press conferences said dreamily, that would be great, so that the collected medical data would fall researchers (of course anonymously), it is not surprising that the senators in the US are concerned and are asking the FDA to create a legal framework for medical applications. The potential for ongoing monitoring of health huge. This will help to prevent chronic diseases in advance and Deposit a huge database of medical data. These data can be used and at the current level of technology supercomputer IBMWatson (which we also once wrote). Soon he will meet a new challenge: to cure or at least prolong